segunda-feira, 18 de setembro de 2017

Rupa Gosvami About Raganuga Sadhana – Translation by Bhanu Swami (Iskcon)

Rūpa Gosvāmī About Rāgānugā Sādhana
Translation by Bhānu Swāmī (Iskcon)

Commentaries by Jīva Gosvāmī and Viśvanātha Cakravartī
Translation from Sanskrit to English and Notes by Bhānu Swāmī (Iskcon)

kṛṣṇaṃ smaran janaṃ cāsya preṣṭhaṃ nija-samīhitam |
tat-tat-kathā-rataś cāsau kuryād vāsaṃ vraje sadā ||294||
(Bhakti Rasāmṛta Sindhu 1.2.294)

Translation: Remembering the Vṛndāvana form of Kṛṣṇa and His dear associates who have inclinations for service similar to ones own, absorbing oneself in hearing topics related to them, one should always live in Vraja.

Jīva Gosvāmīs Commentary
Now, the method of rāgānuga-sādhana-bhakti is described. If possible, one should live physically in the places where Kṛṣṇa lived, such as Vṛndāvana. If one cannot do that, then the person should live there mentally.

Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākuras Commentary
Now starts the description of the method of rāgānuga-sādhana. One should remember the most dear form of Kṛṣṇa (preṣṭham kṛṣṇam), the son of Nanda of kaiśora age, and the devotees of that particular form of Kṛṣṇa (asya janam), who have the same type of desires (for serving Kṛṣṇa) as oneself (nija-samīhitam). Remembering such devotees, one should live in Vraja. If possible, one should physically live in Vṛndāvana, the place where Kṛṣṇa resided as Nandas son. If one cannot do that, one should live there mentally.

sevā sādhaka-rūpeṇa siddha-rūpeṇa cātra hi |
tad-bhāva-lipsunā kāryā vraja-lokānusārataḥ ||295||
(Bhakti Rasāmṛta Sindhu 1.2.295)

Translation: Following after the inhabitants of Vraja, one should perform service in ones physical body and in ones siddha body, with a desire for a particular bhāva.

Jīva Gosvāmīs Commentary
Sādhaka-rūpa refers to the physical body of the practitioner. Siddha-rūpa refers to the body which is suitable for ones desired service, and which has been developed by internal meditation.[125] One serves with a desire for the particular bhāva or rati of an associate of Kṛṣṇa situated in Vraja (tad-bhāvalipsunā). One should follow in the footsteps of the dear associates of Kṛṣṇa in Vraja (vraja-lokā) and others loyal to them.

Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākuras Commentary
One performs service with sādhaka-rūpathe present bodyand with the siddha-rūpathe body which is suitable for serving Vraja Kṛṣṇa in the particular type of rati or bhāva one desires, and which appears through inner contemplation, with a desire for a particular rati directed to ones beloved Kṛṣṇa situated in Vṛndāvana (tadbhāva-lipsunā).[126] One should follow after the dear devotees of Kṛṣṇa such as Rādhā, Lalitā, Viśākhā, Śrī Rūpa-mañjarī and those following after them persons such as Śrī Rūpa and Sanātana Gosvāmīs (vraja-lokānuṣārataḥ). Accordingly, one should perform mental service in ones siddha-rūpa, following after the examples of Śrī Rādhā, Lalitā, Viśākhā, Śrī Rūpa-mañjarī and others. In ones physical body, one should perform services using ones body, following after persons such as Śrī Rūpa and Sanātana Gosvāmīs situated in Vraja. By the word vraja-lokā, one should understand persons situated in Vraja Rādhā, Candrāvalī and others. Following after them, one should perform service using ones physical body also.
Some modern persons following the sauramya-sampradāya think that since persons such as Rādhā did not perform services such as surrendering to guru, following Ekādaśī vows, and serving śālagrāma and tulasī, we also need not do those activities. That idea is defeated here. Jīva Gosvāmī in his commentary has explained this with the words vraja-lokās tv atra kṛṣna-preṣṭha-janās tad-anugatāś ca tadanusārataḥ: vraja-lokā means those dear to Kṛṣṇa (like Śrī Rādhā etc.) and persons following after them (like Śrī Rūpa etc.); one should follow in their footsteps.

śravaṇotkīrtanādīni vaidha-bhakty-uditāni tu|
yāny aṅgāni ca tāny atra vijñeyāni manīṣibhiḥ ||296||
(Bhakti Rasāmṛta Sindhu 1.2.296)

Translation: The discriminating practitioners should accept the aṅgas which were mentioned in vaidhi-bhakti such as hearing and chanting as the aṅgas of rāgānuga-bhakti.

Jīva Gosvāmīs Commentary
The aṅgas here refer to those aṅgas of vaidhi-bhakti which are favorable to ones particular rāgānugā cultivation.

Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākuras Commentary
Along with hearing and chanting, items such as surrendering to the lotus feet of guru should be understood as favorable. Without those favorable items how can one accomplish following after the eternal inhabitants of Vraja? After considering with intelligence, one should select activities conducive to ones own sentiments for Kṛṣṇa, and not those activities which are contrary to ones sentiments. Though prescribed in the scriptures, activities of deity worship such as worshipping Rukmiṇī, meditation of Dvārakā, performing mudrās and nyāsas,[127] or identifying oneself with the Lord and worshipping oneself, should be rejected. The scriptures also say that, on the path of bhakti, there is no fault in omitting some of the procedures (procedures such as meditation on Rukmiṇī).
yān āsthāya naro rājan na pramādyeta karhicit
dhāvan nimīlya vā netre na skhalen na pated iha
O King, one who accepts this process of devotional service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead will never blunder on his path in this world. Even while running with his eyes closed, he will never trip or fall. SB 11.2.35
na hy aṅgopakrame dhvaṃso mad-dharmasyoddhavāṇv api
mayā vyavasitaḥ samyaṅ nirguṇatvād anāśiṣaḥ
My dear Uddhava, because I have personally established it, this process of devotional service unto Me is transcendental and free from any material motivation. Certainly, a devotee never suffers even the slightest loss by adopting this process. SB 11.29.20


Note [125] The siddha-rūpa is given by a guru on the path of rāga-bhakti when he sees the qualification for rāgānuga-bhakti and a particular inclination in a particular disciple. Theoretically this would be a form of an associate of one of the prominent devotees in Vraja with a specific rasadāsya, sakhya, vatsala or madhura. Along with the form, specific dress and service for Kṛṣṇa throughout the day would be given. However, forms of mañjarīs, assistants to the sakhīs of Rādhā, seem to be the most prominent forms given. The details are given in works by Gopālaguru Gosvāmī, Dhyānacandra Gosvāmī and Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura.

Note [126] The idea here is that, it is simultaneous in rāgānuga-bhakti, not at the same instant, but during the same period. For instance, for some hours he will meditate, and the rest of the day he will chant, read, and do deity services.

Note [127] Mudrās are gestures using hands and fingers. Some are functional, indicating stages of the arcana; some indicate the weapons of the Lord; some indicate the items offered in worship. Nyāsa consists of touching various parts of the body with the fingers while uttering mantras. Both of these items are described in Hari-bhakti-vilāsa as part of vaidhi-bhakti arcana. Nyāsa is also mentioned in the definition of arcana given in verse 1.2.137.

Source: Bhakti Rasāmṛta Sindhu by Rūpa Gosvāmī with the Commentaries by Jīva Gosvāmī and Viśvanātha Cakravartī, translated from Sanskrit to English and Annoted by Bhānu Swāmī (Iskcon), Iskcon Chennai, No date of publishing.  (This book is the main work on gauḍīyā vaiṣṇava theology.)
Translation Sanskrit to English: Bhānu Swāmī (Iskcon)
Compilation: David Britto 18 September 2017.
Text font diacritics: Arial Unicode MS

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